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Those that rumble in the morning: a history of Soviet garbage trucks

Today, without communal cars, the life of a big city is unthinkable, but it seems that they cause continuous inconvenience to the townspeople. We have already talked about Soviet sweepers and sprinklers, and here our heroes will be the largest and noisiest garbage trucks, which leak into our quiet courtyards early in the morning and begin to rumble methodically.
Not so long ago in Moscow and Leningrad ordinary trucks took out garbage from the yards, and loaded it there with shovels. Having imagined this process, many, perhaps, will recall the current sealed clean and almost noiseless machines with a kind word, but their predecessors are destined to share white spots. Let’s try to talk about some of them.

One of the most famous Soviet 53M garbage trucks on the GAZ-53A chassis
In the Soviet Union, special machines for collecting and transporting urban sewage appeared only after the Great Patriotic War. All of them were based on ordinary trucks and at first openly copied foreign designs. In the long process of catching up on garbage trucks, dozens of multidisciplinary enterprises built many models and introduced their classification: container, transporting garbage in replaceable containers, tanks or bins, and body (bunker) with self-unloading bodies.

The first Soviet garbage trucks
The first domestic MS-1 garbage truck on the ZIS-5 chassis was developed at the Design Bureau of the Moscow Improvement Office (UBM) and assembled at the Aremz car repair plant. The American version of a 1932 Ford AA truck and the SM-1 communal dump truck with a hydraulic lift assembled in 1947 are considered to be its primary principle.
The first Soviet MS-1 garbage trucks on a ZIS-5 truck with a lifting bucket and hydraulic drives from a dump truck. 1947 year

The “heart” of the garbage truck was a 300-liter bucket for collecting garbage and various waste, suspended on the trailing arms at the rear of the machine. Using a tipper hydraulic drive, he rose to the level of the roof and poured the contents through the top cover of a 6.5-cc body. When unloading, the body toppled over, pouring accumulated sewage through the back cover.

One of the first garbage trucks in the USSR was the rather complicated MS-2 machine on the ZIS-150 chassis, the idea of ​​which was first implemented in 1926 by the German company Mellmer und Schmidt. Since 1950, the Soviet version was produced by the UBM Experimental Mechanical Plant.

At the rear of the garbage truck there was a loading hopper with a lid, behind which was an inclined scraper conveyor with 15 steel blades, moving garbage along the gutter to the upper part of the front wall of the 10-cc body. Towards the end of the journey, mixed and compacted waste was poured into the cargo hold. For unloading, the rear wall rose up, and the body tipped back. The main units were equipped with hydraulic motor drives with a capacity of 260 liters per minute. The car was deemed too complicated, heavy and expensive.
Scheme of the MS-2 garbage truck. The main units: 1 – gearbox, 6 – hydraulic pump, 9 – conveyor, 10 – receiving hopper, 15 – hydraulic cylinder for lifting the rear wall, 17 – hydraulic cylinder for lifting the body, 18 – side door
In 1949, at the Leningrad Mechanical Plant of the City Cleaning Trust, production of the most unusual Soviet garbage trucks MV-10 on the ZIS-5 chassis, made according to the patent of the German company Keller und Knappisch (abbreviated KuKa), began.
The rarest Leningrad garbage truck MV-10 on a military vehicle ZIS-5. 1949 year

Historical garbage truck MV-10 with compact tanks and auger working mechanism
In subsequent years, the model MV-10 was replaced by more powerful machines MV-20 and MV-30 on ZIS-150 trucks. Their main feature was a huge, slowly rotating horizontal spiral screw (auger) located inside an all-metal body, driven by a car’s power take-off.
Unique garbage truck MV-20 on the ZIS-150 chassis with a spiral screw for compacting and pushing out waste. 1956 year
To work with such machines, literally in every yard of Leningrad there were several conical tanks, which two people tipped into the rear receiving device, and a powerful auger moved the waste to the front wall of the body, sealing them along the way. For unloading, the screw switched to reverse, pushing the contents through the back cover of the body.

Container Garbage Trucks
In 1950, in the Leningrad branch of the Academy of Public Utilities, the development of cylindrical garbage cans began, which could be installed on cars in a horizontal position, rolled manually on the ground and returned an empty container for future use. To evaluate this idea, in 1952, an experimental MKM-51 machine was built on the GAZ-51 chassis with nine tanks with a capacity of 500 liters installed longitudinally in three rows of three containers each.

In the late 50s, this garbage truck entered mass production, which carried out fleet number 1 of the management of Spetstrans. By the sunset of the 70s, it already had 750 garbage trucks serving Leningraders up to the 90s.
MKM-4 container garbage trucks in the main Leningrad fleet of special vehicles No. 1. 1963

Maintenance and repair of lightweight garbage trucks MKM-4 in the first fleet of the city of Leningrad. 1974 year
At the same time, a system was used in Moscow with six rectangular (cubic) 600-liter containers placed on the side hinged blocks on the platform of the KMM-2M garbage truck. Their unloading and loading was carried out using a compact crane-beam with a lifting capacity of 500 kilograms with a hydraulic cable drive. Orlovsky factory of loaders was engaged in release of these cars.
Moscow garbage truck KMM-2M with six cubic tanks and a crane beam on a GAZ-51A car
In the mid-1950s, the Mosdormash plant assembled a batch of 25 M-8 garbage trucks of its own design on the GAZ-51A chassis for Moscow’s urban economy.

The M-8 garbage truck of the Mosdormash plant with a crane-beam for transporting and reloading six containers. 1956-1959

On them in two rows were placed six storage rectangular containers with a capacity of up to 750 liters and a central crane beam, used to unload and load both individual tanks, and simultaneously tilt and tilt three containers on each side to spill garbage. For these machines, for the first time, remote conductive control was applied at a distance of up to 15 meters.
The eight-tank garbage truck M-20 of the Mosdormash plant on the GAZ-51A chassis with a cab from the UAZ-450D truck. 1958 year

Moscow two-ton container garbage truck M-30A with eight tanks on the GAZ-53A chassis. 1970s
In 1966, the Oryol loader plant began producing the most practical M-30 container garbage truck on a GAZ-53 truck. The upgraded version of the M-30A with new equipment and three control posts was based on the GAZ-53A chassis, which developed a speed of 85 km / h.
The modernized machine M-30A with a hydraulic crane when reloading a rectangular container. 1978 year
Garbage trucks were equipped with two longitudinal tipping over tubular platforms for handling eight rectangular 750-liter containers, combined in two longitudinal rows of four tanks. Between them, a three-section hydraulic crane with a payload of 700 kilograms was mounted on the frame of the base machine, which was used for loading and unloading one container or tipping over one or both side blocks. The boom with a maximum reach of 2.7 meters was supplied with a tick grip, which ensured the exact laying of each of the containers. The release of these machines involved three more enterprises.
Scheme of the M-30A garbage truck: 1 – a hydraulic crane, 2 – a container, 3 – a tipping platform, 4, 5, 6 – control panels
Last M-30A container garbage trucks in working and transport position

Body garbage trucks
In the mid-50s, a simplified MS-4 car appeared on the GAZ-51A chassis, similar to an ordinary van and becoming the head of a promising generation of body (bunker) garbage trucks. In cooperation with the Mosdormash plant, it was developed by the UBM design bureau, and the Moscow Auto Repair Plant No. 6 was engaged in assembly. Like the MS-2 machine, it was equipped with a receiving hopper and an inclined feed conveyor with a chain drive, pushing garbage to the front wall of the tipping body .
Prototype body garbage truck OM-1 with rear lifting wall and tipping body

Serial body or bunker MS-4 garbage truck with a modernized conveyor on the GAZ-51A chassis. 1956 year
At the end of 1956, the development of the ideas embodied in the MS-2 and MS-4 machines became one of the simplest and most common 93M two-ton garbage trucks with a closed all-metal wagon body with a volume of 4.4 cubic meters. It was used to collect sewage from street garbage bins and was based on the GAZ-51D chassis for GAZ-93A dump trucks. Its development and manufacture was carried out by the experimental workshop of the Moscow Experimental Plant of Loading Machines, which assigned the machine the brand M-93, that is, a “garbage truck”. Then, until the beginning of the seventies, it was assembled by the Orel factory of loaders.

The prototype of the 1956 M-93 bunker machine and its serial version 93M

The main novelty that ensured the garbage truck a great success was the garbage pressing system at the exit from the receiving hopper, which allowed to significantly increase productivity. The place of the former conveyor was taken by a powerful pushing plate with a hydraulic actuator, almost doubling the contents of the body and pushing it into the cargo compartment. The unloading process remained unchanged: the body tipped over and the hopper rose up.

The process of unloading 93M bunker garbage trucks on a GAZ-51D dump truck

In 1965, the Design Bureau of the Moscow Special Automobile Plant (MZSA), together with the mechanization department of the Academy of Public Utilities, created a new simple and fast 53M garbage truck on a truck chassis of the GAZ-53 / 53A series.

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