Buses from the USSR – serial and experimental
Open resort buses on the ZIS-5 chassis for the health resorts of the Crimea and the Caucasus produced several small factories on imported and domestic AMO and ZIS chassis. In particular, they were made by a Tbilisi company under the tricky name Zakavtopromtorg. After the war, similar cars were built on Gorky chassis, with open buses being made until the second half of the 1960s.
ZIS-8A – products of the Leningrad ATUL plant on an extended chassis ZIS-8. Machines with a capacity of 48 people (32 passengers rode seated) were made with a third non-driving so-called rolling axle and a 73-horsepower ZIS-5 engine from 1936 to 1941. After the war, similar buses were produced, but with a wagon body.
YaA-2 was unofficially called the Giant. In 1932, the auto repair shops of the Lensovet Motor Transport Administration (ATUL) built on the Yaroslavl chassis a three-axle bus with a length of already 11.5 m, designed for 80 passengers (seats for 50!). The car was a 6-cylinder 7-liter American engine Hercules 103 hp (there was simply no suitable domestic one) and a four-speed gearbox with a reduction gear. The brakes were mechanical, on the wheels of the rear bogie – with a vacuum booster. They made only one difficult, expensive and slow car.
ZIS-154 – an amazing large city car appeared immediately after the war, in 1946. The wagon layout bus was equipped with GM American diesel – a two-stroke 4-cylinder with a power of 110 hp. Then they began to put the Soviet copy – YAZ-204. Transmission – electric automatic. The city car consumed up to 65 liters of fuel per 100 km, was very smoky and difficult to manufacture. Until 1950, only 1165 ZIS-154s were made; it was replaced by a simpler ZIS-155 with a gasoline engine in front.
GZA-651, aka PAZ-561, aka Kavz, RAF, KAG, etc. Starting from 1950, for half a century, the now-famous machines for short suburban routes or business needs have been producing one and a half dozen factories in all parts of the vast country. The chassis, the “face” and the 70-horsepower 6-cylinder engine are gaz, the bodies were made for a long time on a wooden frame, sheathed with steel sheet.
PAZ-652 is the first bus car of the Pavlovsk plant layout. A prototype, based on the developments of the Gorky plant, was assembled in 1955. The body had a power frame – in the literal sense of the frame, the car did not have a frame. Buses on GAZ units with a 90-horsepower 3.5-liter engine began to be manufactured in 1958, in 1963 the model was modernized, and from 1967 they made the PAZ-672 with a 115-horsepower V8 engine. “Pazikov” model 652 released more than 62,000.
LAZ-695 is one of the most massive city buses in the Soviet Union. A prototype developed under the guidance of V.V. Osepchugova, appeared in 1956. The first industrial batch was made in 1957. A bus with a capacity of 55 people (22 seats) was made under the huge influence of the best German models. The body – with a bearing base, acting as a frame, suspension – on the longitudinal springs with corrective springs, which ensure excellent smoothness. The ZIL engine, mounted at the rear, with a displacement of 5.6 liters developed 109 hp. Since 1961, the LAZ-695 and all subsequent versions installed the Zilovsky V8. Upgrading, LAZ-695 was made until 2003, and produced more than 268 thousand cars.
Double-decker buses in the world are no wonder. But in the Soviet NAMI-0159, the driver was sitting on the second floor! A car with a 6×2 wheel formula with a V8 engine and an automatic transmission was not planned for mass production, but was made to test bold engineering ideas. The cabin capacity increased by almost 30%. What was the driver up there, the story is silent.
The first Soviet articulated bus LiAZ-5E676 was made in 1962. The 15.5-meter-long car was built on the basis of the mass LiAZ-158. 150 hp serial engine was for such a large bus too weak. Including therefore articulated LiAZ and remained a prototype. And later in the USSR Ikarus worked similar in design.
LAZ-699 is the largest and most comfortable serial tourist bus of the USSR. The first version with a length of 10 565 mm under the name Karpaty was produced from 1964 to 1966. The ZIL-375 V8 motor, with a working volume of 7 liters, developed 180 hp. A heavy car was put on MAZ bridges with spring-air suspension. There were 41 comfortable seats in the cabin. In various versions, tourist LAZs were produced until 2004. They made about 36,000 cars. In the photo – LAZ-699N (1972-1978 gg.)
PAZ-Tourist, 1969 – a prototype was made for the international bus competition in Nice, where the Pavlovsk car was rated very highly. The design was created under the guidance of S.I. Zhbannikova, design – M.V. Demidovtseva, who later worked at the VAZ. The car was rear-engine, with a 150-horsepower ZIL-130 engine, had curved side windows, a wardrobe and a roomy trunk. We planned a slightly modified version in the series, and made a simplified version. But the plant could not start mass production.
All-wheel drive PAZ-3201 is a rather rare phenomenon in the world of buses. The car, the prototype of which was made in 1966, is based on the GAZ-66 units. The eight-cylinder engine ZMZ with a volume of 4.25 liters developed 115 hp, the gearbox was a four-stage with a two-stage transfer case. Serial production began in 1972. Until 1988, when the next PAZ-3206 model went into production, 13,873 all-wheel drive PAZ-3201s were manufactured. In the USSR, all-wheel drive “grooves”, used mainly as departmental ones, were in great shortage.
All-wheel drive PAZ-3201
The smallest Soviet bus RAF-2203 is a descendant of model 977. A new factory was built in Jelgava to produce a car with an unusual original body for the late 1960s. The twelve-seat car was based on the obviously weak Volga nodes for him. The engine developed 95 hp, the gearbox was four-speed, the brakes were drum with two hydraulic vacuum amplifiers. Since 1982, the modernized RAF-22038-02 was made. Finally, the production of rafics ceased in 1997.
LiAZ-677 and 677m are the most massive large city buses of the USSR. The development of NAMI was progressive: suspension on pneumatic cylinders, a two-stage automatic transmission with a torque converter lock. For the first time, the driver of a city car was given the opportunity not to wield the lever of the box all day. But the engine on LiAZ was still the same – a voracious gasoline Zilovsky V8 with a capacity of 180 hp. There were only 25 seats, the declared bus capacity was 80, and then 110 people. Who counted them during rush hour? Wit drivers called the ever-crowded LiAZs cattle trucks. In Likino, the 677th was made until 1996, at several plants from Moscow car kits – until the end of the 1990s. In total, more than 194 thousand cars were manufactured.
The child of perestroika is the Alterna bus near Moscow, which was created by an enterprise organized on the basis of the Scientific and Technical Center LiAZ. The car was designed as cheap as possible, which can be equipped with ZIL or KAMAZ serial engines. In addition to Alterna-4216, articulated, intercity and airfield options were created. In the suburbs, production was conducted from 1993 to 1995. Alternatives were also released in Perm and Orsk.