Motor V12 with a gun – there were such trucks in the USSR!
In the Soviet Union, trucks were the main cars. They were produced in huge quantities by giant, large, medium and small plants.
Almost every citizen of the USSR one way or another at least once in his life came across the most popular models. Someone studied at GAZ while still in a driving school, others worked behind the wheel or served as drivers in the army. Well, someone just loaded furniture into the truck, moving to a new apartment.
Some models were so massive and produced them for so long (one not always, but almost always coincided with the other), that they were known in almost every, even the most remote village of the Union. Other cars are famous for the fact that they became epoch-making not only for the Soviet automobile industry, but, in fact, for the whole country.
Here, of course, not all mass trucks of the USSR are here, but one of the most noticeable and significant in the history of our automobile industry.
The most massive pre-war trucks were the simple (and now legendary) one-and-a-half lorries (carrying capacity 1.5 tons) – GAZ-AA (first NAZ-AA), which were made under the Ford license since 1932. In 1938, part of the vehicles with 3.3- liter engines at 50 hp instead of the previous version of 40 hp officially began to bear the name GAZ-MM. One and a half trucks went through the war and were not taken out of production not immediately after the Victory. In addition to the Gorky Plant, cars were assembled in Moscow, Rostov-on-Don, and after the war until 1949 in Ulyanovsk. Manufactured a little less than 1.1 million cars.
Ours abroad: what the USSR cars turned into in China, Korea, in Cuba
No less famous, and before the war and especially respected for the carrying capacity was the three-ton ZIS-5, the production of which began in 1933. They put a 73-horsepower engine with a working volume of 5.5 liters on the car, and 90-horsepower on the last, post-war, Moscow cars, which received the name ZIS-50.
ZIS-5, aka Zakhar, in addition to the ZIS plant since 1942, produced UlZIS in Ulyanovsk, and since 1944, UralZIS in Miass. The car was made in many modifications, in the Urals – right up to 1958. In total, more than 860 thousand copies were made, some worked back in the early 1970s.
GAZ-51 – a symbol of the post-war revival of the country and a record holder for the number of copies issued throughout Soviet history: from 1946 to 1975. made more than 3.5 million cars of various modifications. A little more than 14 thousand GAZ-51 were assembled at the Irkutsk assembly plant, the rest – in Gorky. The car with a loading capacity of 2500 kg with a six in 75 hp. gradually modernized (early cars had, for example, wood-metal cabs), but the base was unchanged. Dump trucks, truck tractors, special vehicles and, of course, the famous “nosy” buses that built about a dozen factories across the country were made on the GAZ-51 chassis. And the GAZ-51 is famous for the fact that it was produced abroad: in China, North Korea and Poland.
A little later than the GAZ-51, in 1947, ZIS-150 trucks began to roll off the assembly line in Moscow. The 4000 kg machine was essentially brand new. The drivers were impressed by the spacious cab, and the 5-speed gearbox, and pneumatic brakes, and, of course, the 90-hp engine. (later – 95 hp). Until 1957, nearly 780 thousand trucks of various modifications were manufactured. Then, until 1965, they produced another 380 thousand noticeably modernized, but outwardly similar ZIL-164. Tractors and dump trucks were also built in Georgia under the KAZ brand. Copies of the ZIS-150 were made in China.
Mythic – the country’s first serial diesel truck YAZ-200, huge at that time with a carrying capacity of 7000 kg, appeared in 1947. A prototype with the cab of the American Mack was assembled back in 1944. The car was equipped with a two-stroke diesel engine made under an American license – a 4-cylinder, 4.65-liter displacement, 110 hp. Until 1950, a little more than 1800 YAZ-200 were assembled in Yaroslavl, then the production was transferred to Minsk, where the MAZ-200 was made in several modifications until 1966.
The first post-war cross-country vehicle from the Stalin plant was the ZIS-151, the production of which began in the autumn of 1948. Nearly 200 thousand made three-axle cars with rear two-wheeled wheels until 1958. But the modernized ZIL-157, which in Moscow was on the assembly line from 1958 to 1982, became more famous. It is difficult to find someone who served in the army during these decades and one way or another did not come across a machine that enjoys an excellent reputation for cross-country ability and reliability. More than 797 thousand were assembled of three-axle ZIL-157s with a lifting capacity of 4500 kg with an in-line six-cylinder 104-horsepower (then 110-horsepower) engine in Moscow, and about 160 thousand were made from 1977 to 1991. at the UAMZ plant in Novouralsk.
The Ulyanovsk “loaf” recently celebrated the 60th anniversary (!) Of conveyor life. Of course, compared to the 65-horsepower UAZ-450, which was launched in 1958, current cars are very different. But the basis of layout and style was laid precisely then. Since the 1960s, the UAZ-451 family with a leading rear axle was also made in parallel. Later, the family of “loaves” and “tadpoles,” as the UAZ-452, UAZ-3741, and UAZ-3303 trucks were once called, grew in a huge number of modifications.
Experienced MAZ-500 and MAZ-503
The revolutionary for the country was the MAZ-500 family of trucks – the first production serial Soviet beskapotnik with a reclining cab. In small batches, cars with the Yaroslavl V6 diesel engine rated at 180 hp built since 1961, massively – since 1963. Onboard trucks, dump trucks, and tractors (including those with the G8 of 270 hp) were produced until 1990. Collected more than 330 thousand copies.
There was no city, village, village in the USSR where ZIL-130 would not have been known. Drivers appreciated the car for power, endurance and reliability. ZIL-130 was developed from the mid-1950s, launched into a series in 1964. First indicated a load capacity of 5000, and later 6000 kg. 6 L petrol V8 with 150 hp It was very reliable, although it was not very economical, to put it mildly. In many modifications in Moscow, cars (including the not very modernized ZIL-431410) were assembled before 1995, and in the Urals – until 2010! Almost 3.4 million cars were made.